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Offshore renewable energy:accelerating the deployment of offshore wind, tidal and wave technologies

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Wave, tidal and offshore wind technologies have long held the promise of seemingly limitless energy supplies. In practice, while offshore wind is growing relatively rapidly, all three sectors have lagged behind expectations. This book, from the International Energy Authority Renewable Energy Technology Deployment implementing agreement (IEA-RETD), examines the reasons for this and suggests how barriers to deployment might be overcome.


Beginning with an assessment of the marine energy resource, it provides a detailed introduction to the main technologies currently being employed to harness wind, tidal and offshore wind power. It then examines the types of policies which are used to encourage deployment around the world, and progress towards meeting targets. The economics of offshore energy projects are discussed, along with risks that projects face and the types of finance which are available. A final section turns to barriers - both technical and non-technical (including environmental, health and safety, skill related, supply chain and more) - and in all cases suggests how to mitigate and remove these barriers.


Highly illustrated in full colour, this is an indispensable resource for anyone - whether in industry, policy or academia - looking to learn more about how deployment of offshore renewable energy technologies can be encouraged.


內容簡介來源:

Machine generated contents note:


1.1.      Industry context


1.2.      Economics and financing of offshore energy projects


1.3.      Technical and non-technical barriers and their mitigation measures


1.4.      Findings, conclusions, recommendations and next steps


2.1. Introduction


2.2. Resource assessment


2.3. World distribution of offshore resources


2.4. Summary of offshore energy resources by country


3.1. Offshore wind devices


3.2. Wave energy devices


3.3. Tidal energy devices


3.4. Foundations, moorings and grid connection


4.1. Deployment targets and policies


4.2. Deployment to date


5.1. Level of maturity of offshore technologies


5.2.Comparison of CAPEX, OPEX and cost of energy


5.3. CAPEX cost structure and drivers


5.4. OPEX cost structure and drivers


5.5. Cost of energy


5.6. Differences between countries of project location


5.7. Conclusions


6.1. Introduction


6.2. Effects of project risk assessment on economics


6.3. Key technical project risks


6.4. Impact of key variables upon total cost structure


6.5. Conclusions


7.1. Financing options


7.2. Balance sheet finance


7.3. Conclusions


8.1. Barriers common to all offshore renewable technologies


8.2. Barriers specific to offshore wind technologies


8.3. Barriers specific to wave and tidal technologies


8.4. Mitigation and removal of technology barriers


8.5. Electrical connection, transmission and grid integration barriers


8.6. Mitigation and removal of grid connection barriers


8.7. Conclusions


9.1. Introduction


9.2. Environmental barriers


9.3. Mitigation and removal of environmental barriers


9.4. Health-and-safety barriers


9.5. Mitigation and removal of health-and-safety barriers


9.6. Regulatory and permitting barriers


9.7. Mitigation and removal of regulatory and permitting barriers


9.8.Competing use barriers


9.9. Mitigation and removal of competing use barriers


9.10. Skills availability barriers


9.11. Mitigation and removal of skills availability barriers


9.12. Supply chain and infrastructure barriers


9.13. Mitigation and removal of supply chain and infrastructure barriers


9.14. Access to capital and financial support mechanism barriers


9.15. Mitigation and removal of financial barriers


9.16. Conclusions


10.1. Stage A: Opportunity analysis


10.2. Stage B: Project materialization


10.3. Stage C: Reliability and sustainability


10.4. Conclusions


11.1. Findings


11.2. Project development recommendations


11.3. Model policy framework


E.1. Introduction


E.2. Canada


E.3. Denmark


E.4. France


E.5. Germany


E.6. Ireland


E.7. Italy


E.8. Japan


E.9. The Netherlands


E.10. Norway


E.11. UK


E.12. Belgium


E.13. Finland


E.14. Spain


E.15. Sweden


E.16. US


E.17. China


E.18. Taiwan


E.19. Portugal.

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