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虛擬電廠財務模式研究:期末報告

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過去十年間電力世界大幅改變,創新科技例如智慧電表乃至功能完整、創新應用的智慧電網概念進入電力市場,而電力事業監管機構則不斷要求電力公司降低二氧化碳排放和提供顧客更多元化選擇。電力公司需要在滿足監管機構要求與達成以合理價格提供可靠電力義務間尋求平衡,同時需追求利害關係者最大利益,前述這些目標間部分相互衝突,因此電力公司需要決定對待個別目標的方式。為達成前述概念,電力公司期望透過:1.動態電價降低尖峰負載;2.導入需量反應制度在緊急或難以負荷時卸除負載;3.導入具規模的分散式發電設備以減少化石燃料電廠之使用;4.導入區域性分散式發電設備或需量反應制度改善電網平衡及減少供電故障;5.藉由獨立電力調度中心(ISO)或電力交易市場標售需量及分散式發電擴大其效益。當電力企業期待上述科技所帶來之發展契機的同時,也面臨了新的挑戰。如何適當的預測用戶參與各種方案的程度、如何將需量反應或分散式電源整合進入電力公司的運作排程組合、如何落實在地化的需量反應方案解決電網的特定問題,對電力企業而言都有待尋求解決方案。前述這些挑戰都相當複雜,但並非所有電力企業都面對所有課題。對於不同課題組合電力企業都需要在營運上可以降低負載與減少電力取得所造成衝擊影響的解決方案。需量反應如何影響電力公司的配電系統,電力公司如何合理的整合可利用之用戶,虛擬電廠概念便在這樣的需求下孕育而生。


虛擬電廠概念可讓分散式電源與需量反應的微小容量突破參與獨立電力調度中心財務模式和實體設備模式的限制,也可以在任何電網型態與地理實體位置的層級上彈性地定義虛擬電廠。這種彈性允許虛擬電廠公司參與實體和財務市場。然而,電力公司一旦需要將奬勵金轉換成具體作為,電力公司需有能力在需量反應方案的商業規則與客戶可用性及可得性基礎上選擇正確的客戶參與,並分析參與獨立電力調度中心或電力交易市場後的財務和配電系統的平衡。因此,本研究計畫將透過蒐集與分析各國現有虛擬電廠經濟模式,並以台灣推動虛擬電廠的必要性與各地區推動方式為基礎,探討台灣可能的虛擬電廠財務模式。


The utility world has changed drastically in the last 10 years. New technologies like Smart Meters and fully functional Smart Grid concepts have made large inroads into the utility space and no one should want to be left behind. Utilities also face additional pressures from regulatory parties who are continuing to encourage carbon reduction and greater customer flexibility. The utility needs to balance these new requirements with the financial obligations of providing reliable power while attempting to meet shareholder expectations. Each of these goals are not necessarily complimentary, thus utilities need to determine how to address each one.


Some of the ways the utility is addressing these concepts are through the rollout of 1) dynamic pricing for reducing peak-load, 2)demand response to shed load during emergency situations or other trying times, 3) large scale distributed generation to reduce usage of fossil burning plants, 4) localized distributed generation or demand response to improve grid balancing or reduce outages, 5) leveraging Independent System Operator (ISO)/wholesale markets where utilities bid customer demand response or distributed energy resources into the market. While each of these present great opportunities, there are also new challenging issues such as how to forecast appropriately the level of customer participation in programs, how to include demand response or distributed energy resources into a utility’s operational portfolio, and how to execute very localized demand response to address grid specific issues. Each of these challenges are complex and while not all opportunities will be addressed by the utility, any combination of each of these will require a solution that can address operational concerns of how much load will be reduced and how does that impact a utility’s procurement/generation of power. How will demand response impact a utility distribution system, and in what ways can a utility aggregate these available customers into something that makes logical sense. One concept to confront these challenges is the Virtual Power Plant.


The VPP concept can overcome the chasm of the financial and physical models for ISOs. As discussed previously, VPPs can allow for the flexibility to define these at whatever topological level desired. This flexibility allows the utility to play in both the physical and financial markets. However, once the utility solidifies an award, it has to be capable of knowing how to select the right customers based on DR program business rules and their availability, a way to perform an appropriate analysis of customer participation; and payout and balance its distribution system based on its participation in the ISO/wholesale market. Therefore, this project will explore the possible financial model for Virtual Power Plant in Taiwan based on the importance of promoting virtual power plant in Taiwan and the promotion strategies conduct in each area by gathering and analyzing the econometric models of the existing virtual power plants around the world.[轉錄自摘要]


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