Market-based instruments are becoming the environmental management tool of choice and have provided a new perspective on the conventional wisdom about policy instruments. This book analyzes the complexities of designing and implementing market-based instruments using case study experiences from the Nordic countries, Japan, France, The Netherlands, Germany and Britain, where a range of green taxes have been introduced. The contributors examine the role of political processes in designing, introducing and implementing green taxes and charges and analyze the extent to which political concerns complicate the approach favored by environmental economists. The authors then focus on the implementation of market-based instruments to achieve environmental objectives and offer an ex-post evaluation of different countries' experiences with economic instruments. This volume brings together contributions from political scientists and environmental economists and will prove invaluable for academics, practitioners and policymakers interested in the experiences of countries where market-based instruments are well established.