Encouraging entrepreneurship and facilitating the rapid growth of innovative SMEs is an effective means of creating jobs, increasing productivity and alleviating poverty. This publication describes recent trends concerning SMEs and entrepreneurship in OECD economies and beyond. It reports on a range of policy initiatives taken to enhance the vitality and competitiveness of the SME sector—which comprises over 95% of all enterprises and accounts for two thirds of private sector employment. Among the themes covered in this edition are regulatory and administrative burdens; entrepreneurship education and training; SME access to financing, technology, innovation and international markets; women’s entrepreneurship; and local policy issues. This third edition also includes the Istanbul Ministerial Declaration on Fostering the Growth of Innovative and Internationally Competitive SMEs.